74e THOREAU SOCIETY BULLETIN BULLET IN 17* SUCMET?, 1985 US ISSN 0040-6406 THOREAU 'S MODERNITY: A COMPUTERIZED PROSE ANALYSIS BY Len Gougeon It has occasionally been suggested that Thoreau is one of the first "modern" prose stylists in American literature. Certainly, by comparison to contemporaries such as Emerson, Hawthorne, Alcottj and others he is conspicuously different. Intrigued by the possibility of testing the modernity of Thoreau' s prose, I thought that it would be inter- esting and amusing to run a representative sample of his writing through a computerized "prose analy- zer" which is designed to assess and improve the efforts of the modern writer. The results, I felt, could be very revealing. For the as-yet uninitiated, a computer driven prose analyzer is a software program designed to evaluate individual writing samples with a view to improving them. These programs have been available for some time for use with main frame computers (Writer's Workbench is probably the best known). Recently there has been a proliferation of such software designed for use with the personal comput- er. One such program is Lancelot which is a copyvrit- ten prose analysis package developed at Clarkson University. It is this latter, combined with an IBC PC, which I used for my Thoreau experiment. For my analysis I selected chapter two of Walden, "Where I Lived and What I Lived For" (in the Norton Critical Edition). My reasons for choosing this sample of Thoreau' s writing are simple. First of all, it's short, about seventeen double-spaced pages; secondly, it is a relatively self-contained and complete unit; thirdly, it is, I feel, an ex- cellent example of Thoreau' s writing at its best. After typing the chapter into a file on my PC, I proceeded to run the analysis, which consists of three parts. The first program in the analysis is called Index . This program analyzes a text for readibility, that is, it determines how difficult (or easy) a prose statement is to read. It generat- es a Basic St-yle index (abbreviated as BS with no intentional pun) by checking the text for sentence and word length, for subordination, coordination verb complexity, and negation. After performing this analysis the program generates a "Basic Style Rating." A higher number indicates a difficult text. The program also provides a scale which allows one to interpret the Basic Style Rating figure. For example, a rating between 6 and 10 means that the text is easily read," while a rating between 15 and 18 is judged "difficult," and 19 and above "calls for revision." Thoreau' s BS rating was 13, which places it in the "readable" category, which is good. This program also generates a histogram showing the length of all sentences in the sample so that the writer can tell at a glance if his sentences are monotonously long, or short, or medium, etc. The Thoreau Soolety, Inc., is an infor- mal gathering of students and admirers of Henry David Thoreau. Frederiok Wagner, president; Mary Anderson, treasurer; and Walter Harding, secretary. Address communi- oations to the secretary at State University College, Geneseo, N.T. 14454, Dues, flO a year; Friend, $15; Family, $25; and Life Membership, $500. Dues should be sent to the Thoreau Soiiety, 156 Belknap St., Con- cord, Mass. 01742, where the society main- tains The Thoreau Lyceum Thoreau' s histogram showed a proper and desirable blend of 3hort, long, and intermediate sentences. Also, his chapter contains 208 sentences, the long- est of which is 143 words, which the computer sug- gests, is "probably too long." By the way, the value iudgments which the computer program executes are based generally on the grammatical theories of Dr. Rudolph Flesh (author of How to Test Readibili- ty) and are offered to the writer as suggestions rather than absolutes. Thoreau' s most frequently used word is "not" (52 times), which probably reinforces his reputa- tion as a nay-sayer. The other most frequently used words are "we" (45), "which" (42), "my" (42), "if" (42), "his" (37), "this" (33), "had" (33), "have" (30), and "all"(30, which would seem to suggest a tendency toward Anglo-Saxon brevity, The computer also counted 831 words which "appear to be preposi- tions," This gives Thoreau an average of three prepositions per sentence, which the computer suggests is "probably too many," The second analytic program is called Diction , This program checks for "empty words and phrases, redundancies, cliches, and awkward constructions.' When potential problem statements are located in the text, this file will identify them and offer suggestions for revision which the writer can act on or ignore. Thus, the computer suggested that Thoreau should delete the words "afltually," "com- pletely," and "quite" to "intensify his meaning." It also suggested dropping "rather," "really," and "somewhat" because they are weak modifiers, As far as Thoreau 's word choice is concerned, the computer found very little empty or pretentious diction. It did, however, suggest substituting "so" for "accord- ingly," "pay" for "compensation," and "stop or pause" for "cessation." Regarding wordy phrases or redundancies, the pro- gram suggested that Thoreau might substitute "doubt- less" for "no doubt that," and also that he should reconsider his frequent use of such phrases as, "Kind of," "more or less," "as for," "began to"and "I think" since they are often unnecessary. Addi- tionally, the computer did note Thoreau' s repeti- tions, "simplicity, simplicity, simplicity," and simplify, simplify" and asked, "Are you sure you want to do this?" The last analysis file is called Verb . It is de- signed to look at the writer's use of the various forms of the verb "to be." It reports how frequent- ly the verb is used, points out those individual in- stances in the text, and also identifies its func- tion as a helping verb. Thus, when Thoreau says, "I would say to my fellows, once for all, as long as possible live free and uncommitted," the program draws up the statement and suggests, "you use the helping verb "would." This word is frequently over- used. Use compound verbs sparingly. Try to write using simple present and simple past when possible" As it turns out, Thoreau uses the word "would" fairly frequently (fourteen times), which probably reinforces the idea that Transcendentalists are generally reforming idealists. Lastly, the program identified 255 forms of the verb "to be" in 208 sentences. The computer isolat- ed each of these usages and politely suggested that the writer should consider his use of the "to be" verb and "revise if you are using unnecessary pass- ives or unnecessarily complex verb forms. Try to use active verbs" Indeed, in most instances Thoreau 's usage is active. What could be more ac- tive, for example, than.the statement, "To him whose elastic vigorous thought keeps pace with the sun, the day is a perpetual morning." Overall, throughout the 38 pages of analysis which Thoreau' s chapter generated, the bard's prose held up well under computer scrutiny, which would seem to testify to the fact that the style is at least comparable to modern useage and stand- ards as developed within this popular computer program. When musing over the results of my experi- ment I could not help but wonder what Thoreau would have done with a program such as this and the technology which operates it. My conclusion is that he would probably appreciate the ingenuity in- volved but moderate his enthusiasm with a recogni- tion of the dangers of becoming the tools of our tools . LETTER FROM "A FAR-FLUNG MEMBER " CEditor's note: This letter was recently receiv- ed from a member of our society who is a resident of a country behind the Iron Curtain. He has re- quested that his name be withheld. 3 Dear Mr. Harding: Your paper on different drummers which you read at the 1984 Annual Meeting has moved me to write you again. I do hope, you'll not be annoyed to receive and read a letter that will be coming from a far-flung country and from a far-flung member of your /our!/ Society. I reckon with a maximum probability, that I will emulate Joseph Isill in dreaming in vain of visiting Concord and Walden Pond - not even in my seventies, - never participate in post luncheon quizzes at our Annual Meetings, never take part in a box-supper held at the Lyceum, never join a Sun- rise Walk to Walden Pont to celebrate Thoreau' s Birthday, never listen to a sermon at the First Parish Church or ever stand at the top of Mount Washington. Looking through my fifty years of life here in Central Eastern Europe I confirm silently my des- perate enterprises having been successfully avoid- ed and my steps being adjusted to a music I have never stopped hearing. Even at this end of the world to miss out on des- perate enterprises means opting out of pecuniary values for good. Such makings selected on purpose endorse with heavy practical reasons my perpetual absence from Concord on one side. On the other side the experience of not keeping pace with my companions has been constantly spurring me to find out whose drum do I hear. The rough road has lead me to Thoreau. Under bitter experiences it came to be true that in my surrounding a thoreauvian way of life shall remain a queer and suspicious one. In spite of such negative omens I am convinced, that differences and departures I feel and observe are superficialities. Essential features link the thoreauvian and Central European facet of serious and radical individualism incorporated in certain, chosen lifestyles. POKROVISKIY'S THOREAU "Thoreau," by Nikita Yevgen' yevich Pokrovskiy, a Soviet specialist in the history of 18th- and 19th- century American philosophy, is a concise and very readable description of Thoreau' s life and thought, written for a mass audience in the Soviet Union. Pokrovskiy begins by describing Thoreau' s life, noting the events and people which influenced Thoreau' s thinking. He then describes the American, European, and Oriental cultural influences on Thoreau, providing a Marxist-Leninist view of early American history. The main part of the book examines Thoreau' s philosophy. Thoreau' s symbolic world vision and the concept of rebirth are discussed. Pokrovskiy discusses Thoreau' s views on nature and society , particularly business and wealth, very thoroughly. The author also explores an area he considers too-little studied: Thoreau's relation- ship with John Brown. Noting that Leo Tolstoy referred to "Walden" daily, the author briefly describes Tolstoy's attitude toward Thoreau. Tolstoy was instrumental in publishing the first Russian translation of Thoreau's works. Pokrovskiy suggests that the Tolstoy Archives and the Tolstoy Library at Yasnaya Polyana would be fruitful places to carry out much- needed scholarship on this subject. CThis book is in the series, "Thinkers of the Past," from Mysl' Publishing House, Moscow. Edition: 60,000 copies. Retail price: 25 kopecks (about 30 cents ) .} - James W, Toppin THE POLITICS OF PROVOCATION By Helmut Klumpsan (Abstract of DIE POLITIK DER PROVOKATION: HENRY DAVID THOREAU. Frankfurt: Peter Lanz, 1984. 360pp. Originally a 1980 Ph.D. dissertation at the Univ- ersity of Bochun, Germany). Starting from a genetic point of view - rather than from the systematic approach applied by the doctoral dissertations of EVANS and MCKAY - this study tries to shed more light on the perplexing changes in Thoreau's attitude towards politics. Among the different cultural, psychological, historical, and situational factors which influenc- ed Thoreau's oscillation between a quietist atti- tude (young man Thoreau's withdrawal from the "dirt" of politics as well as his final detachment from Civil War) and an activistic attitude (moving from civil disobedience to the radical apology of rev- olutionary violence), attention is specially given to religious influences and to the condition of Thoreau's consciousness. As in previous studies, which have stressed the close relationship between the psychological situ- ation of Thoreau and religious influences, this study also points out the close connection between Thoreau's quietist attitude and the impact of New England transcendentalism (and quakerism). Unlike the previous studies, however, the cause of Thoreau's activistic attitude are not reduced to the influence of Puritanism. Instead, it is shown that the relationship is much more complex. This is true, too, for the relationship between Thoreau' s quietist attitude and his mysticism. Though his quietism has its basis in the actualization of his great mystic abilities, it would be a distorting over-simplification to name Thoreau a mystic with- out making major qualifications. Instead of regarding Thoreau's life-long oscilla- tion between a quietist and an activistic attitude as basically a repeated change between transcen- dentalist and a puritan approach toward life, this study tries to demonstrate that it was the oscilla- tion between "mysticism" and "gnosticism" which formed the basis of Thoreau's changing attitude toward politics. In this context, the term "gnos- ticism" signifies a mode of consciousness which tries to replace the uncertainty of the Christian belief (or the purely transcendental enlightenment of the mystic) with the i mmanent certainty obtain- ed through GNOSIS (i.e. ultimate ontological know- ledge which allegedly enables man to effect by himself the salvation from the deficiencies of the human condition). Following Eric VOEGELINs studies on the political consequences of a gnostic mode of consciousness (particularly a case study of revo- lutionary Puritanism) , this study goes on to show that in Thoreau's case the shifting from a mystic towards a gnostic mode of consciousness resulted in the revolutionary activism of his later years. The causes of this shift in his mode of (conscious- ness, are traced back to both psychological fac- tors (especially to the unbearably long period of his "inner winter" of fading intuitional power) and to the influences of the gnostic world-view contained in the Puritan interpretation of Christianity. The stress laid on the consideration of factors of consciousness, together with the genetic approach of the study, will help, it is hoped, to eliminate two persisting faulty judgements on Thoreau's attitude towards politics: l st ly, that his political zigzag was merely a response to out- er stimuli, and 2 n< lly, that his contradictory statements on politics are proof of his inability to write the stringent political theory he (allegedly) had tried to achieve. Though Thoreau's attitude toward politics under- went extreme changes during his short public life as a writer, there is nevertheless a continuity in all of these changes: the common denominator is the "broken" relationship with politics of the radical idealist who is not willing to compromise his perfectionist standards with the imperfect reality of political life, and who, therefore, as Max WEBER pointed out, does not possess the voca- tion for politcs. THOREAU IN THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE , 1977-1983 by Robin S, McDowell While Henry David Thoreau is one of the most quotable, and most quoted, American writers, it is less often realized that he is also cited occasionally in the current literature of science. A previous article in the Bulletin (No. 143 (Spring 1978), p. 2) summarized those instances in which Thoreau's observations or conclusions on natural history had been considered pertinent by scientific authors during the period 1964- 1976. Here this list is updated through 1983. During these last seven years Thoreau was cited 30 times, or over four times per year, which com- pares favorably with 8.2 times per year for the average working scientist. The more interesting citations are discussed below. For consistency, all page numbers refer to the 1906 Walden edition of Thoreau's Writings , even though the authors may have used some other source (or, in some cases, failed to give detailed references). 1. C.G. Lormier, "The Presettlement Forest and Natural Disturbance Cycle of Northeastern Maine," Ecology 58 (1977, 139-148, mentions Thoreau's observation of the dominance of spruce and fir in virgin forests of northern Maine: The Maine Woods , Appendices I, III. 2. P. Del Tredici, "The Buried Seeds of Compto- nia peregrina , the Sweet Fern" Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 104 (1977, 270-275, cites the Journal 14: 162 (22 Oct. 1860) on the sweet ferm, a "pioneer" species whose seeds can persist in the soil for many years until uncovered by a disturbance such as a railroad cut. 3. H.I. Baldwin, "The Induced Timberline of Mount Monadnock, N.H.," Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 104 (1977), 324-333, mentions Thoreau's observations of the flora of this peak during his vists there, as recorded in the Journal (4:342-347, 10:452-480, 14:8-52; Sept. 1852, June 1858, Aug. 1860). 4. J.W. Jorgenson, M. Novotny, M. Carmack, G.B. Copland, S.R. Wilson, S. Katona, and W.K. Whitten, "Chemical Scent Constituents in the Urine of the Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes L. )"Durinp the Winter Sea- son," Science 199 (1978), 796-798, quote Thoreau's description of the trail of a red fox on fresh snow, Journal l:185f. (30 Jan. 1841); cf. also Excursions . p. 117. 5. H. Caswell, "Predator-Mediated Coexistence: A Non-Equilibrium Model," American Naturalist 112 (1978), 127-154, credits Thoreau, in "The Succes- sion of Forest Trees" tEighth Annual Report of the Secretary of the Mass. Board of Agriculture : Excursions , pp. 184-204), as the first to emphasize the importance of dispersal in plant succession. 6. M.J. McDonnell, "The Flora of Plum Island, Essex County, Massachusetts," New Hampshire Agri- cultural Experiment Station Bulletin 513 (1979), 1-110, quotes (on p. 13) Thoreau's description of Plum Island in 1839: Week , p. 210. 7. N. Mrosovsky and C.L. Yntema, "Temperature Dependence of Sexual Differentiation in Sea Turtles: Implications for Conservation Practices," Biological Conservation 18 (1980), 271-280, end their paper with a quotation from the Journal 7:28f. (9 Sept. 1854) on the earth hatching and "mothering" turtle eggs. 8. H.F, Hemond , "Biogeochemistry of Thoreau's Bog, Concord, Massachusetts," Ecological Mono - graphs 50 (1980), 507-526, examines the bog ilhat Thoreau knew as Gowing ' s Swamp ( Journal 6:467f 10:196f., 271f., 13:124f.; 23 Aug. 1854, 23 Nov! 1857, 1 Feb. 1858, and 3 Feb. 1860). From Thoreau's description the changes in plant species over 120 years can be determined, and his measurement of the central pool provides an estimate of the rate of advance of the sphagnum mat. The paper opens with a quotation from the Journal 9:44 (30 Aug. 1856): "Consider how remote and novel that swamp. ... In it grow. . .plants which scarcely a citizen of Concord ever sees. It would be as novel to them to stand there as in a conservatory, or in Green- land." 9. L.C. Hempel, "The Original Blueprint for a Solar America" Environnent 24i> no. 2 (March 1982), 25-32, discusses in some detail J.A. Etzler's The Paradise wi thin the Reach of All Ten (2nd English ed«, 1842) and Thoreau's crmtique~ ,r Paradise (to be) Regained" ( The Democratic •Review , ; Cape Cod and Miscel lanies , pp. 2150-105 ) . "We have learned be- latedly some of the energy-and-ecology lessons urged on us by Thoreau. ...If Thoreau can be fault- ed for an overly cautious attitude toward the de- velopment of renewable energy sources, it is only because he was unaware of the more sinister envi- ronmental threats waiting to be introduced with the rapid development of fossil fuels and nuclear power . " 10. J.C. Scott, "Flow Beneath a Stagnant Film on Water: the Reynolds Ridge," Journal of Fluid Mechanics 116 (1982), 283-296, cites Thoreau's ob- servation of this effect in his Journal £6:326f.; 10:256, ll:408f.; cf. TSB 123 (1973), 4, and 143 (1978), 2 . 11. J.W. Ropes, "The Atlantic Coast Surf Clam Fishery, 1965-1974," Marine Fisheries Review 44, no. 8 (Aug. 1982), 1- 14, refers to Cape Cod on the use of surf clams for food in New England (Thoreau's sea clam or hen, Mactra solidissima, pp. 7 2 f . , 85f., 94f.). 12. S.F. Barstow, "The Ecology of Langmuir Cir- culation: A Review," Marine Environmental Research 9 (1983), 211-236, credits Thoreau with first recognizing that windrows on the ocean sur- face caused by cellular circulation patterns are aligned with the wind direction ( Cape Cod ), p. 120). Since the Science Citation Index has recently extended its coverage back to 1955, we can now summarize approximately 60 references to Thoreau that have been made over the past 29 years. About 20 of these were "substantive" citations, in that specific observations or conclusions of his were mentioned in scientific and natural history per- iodicals, including eight references to the Journal and four each to Cape Cod and "The Succes- sion of Forest Trees." Citations of Walden were most frequent (24 times), but only two of these were substantive in the above sense, the others being quotations of aphorisms. Interestingly, the literary use of Walden has declined recently in medical and psychological articles, but has picked up somewhat in the pure sciences and natural his- tory. A perhaps more important trend is a decided increase over the past few years in the use of material from the Journal in the scientific literature . THOREAU SENTENCE PATTERNS IMITATED by Ramond Gozzi "I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately" — so begins an oft-quoted paragraph of "Where I Lived, and What I Lived for," the second chapter of Walden . Several imitations of the sentence patterns of this paragraph, along with Thoreau's paragraph itself, appear in Ebbitt and Ebbitt, Writer's Guide and Index to English , (1982), 237-8. Adroitly written by students, these imitations should bring smiles to the faces of un- solemn Thoreauvians . Here are two of the imita- tions . Wh y I Took This Course I took this course because I wished to write deliberately, to use only essential words and phrases, and see if I could not learn to express myself better, and not, when I came to graduate, discover that I could not write well. I did not want to fail the course, my grade point average is so dear; nor did I wish to drop the course, unless it was quite necessary. I longed to write brilliart- ly and turn out the best possible essays, to write so perfectly as to put an end to all of the correc- tions on my papers, to cut out unnecessary words and produce clear prose, to try to bring my writing ability I possessed into the open, and expose it to criticism, and, if I proved to be a poor writer, why then at least I would have tried, and I would have no misconceptions about my skills, and if my writing were satisfactory, to gain confidence through my course experience, and be able to give an even better account of myself in my next English class. But many members of the class, it appears to me, are in a strange uncertainty about the course and its goals, whether it has been of benefit to them or not, and have somewhat hastily concluded that the chief purpose of the course is to "glorify Thoreau and enjoy him forever, whether you like it or not!" What I Grew and Why I Grew It I cultivated my beard to assert my independence, to show my family and friends that not only was I master of my own cheeks and chin, but of my life as well, and not, as they had thought, merely to enhance my appearance by natural cosmetic. I did not wish to hide my natural features, for I usually don't fret about things that aren't my fault or cannot be effectively changed; nor did I wish to sow the seeds of family discord for a few paltry hairs. I wanted to say to my parents at all times without having to talk incessantly, that I would not necessarily be molded by commonly held notions of respectability, that I would not necessarily marry respectably, if at all, get a respectable job, or live the proper life; but if I did, all would know that it was by my own hand, of my own mind, and for my own reasons; and if I didn't it would also be of my own choice and no reflection on them. I would not require nor owe apologies. Few men and fewer women know why they grow their beards; or if they know, they grow them for the wrong rea- sons: appearance, rebellion, prospective employment in a circus or just a lack of concern for looks and hygiene. My beard was a subtle declaration that was either misinterpreted or ignored altogether. Now my mustache is another story. THE 1985 THOREAU SOCIETY ANNUAL MEETING. The 1985 annual meeting was held on Sat- urday July 13, 1985, at the First Parish ■ hurch in ''onrord, Mass., with Prof. Fred- erick Wagner of Hamilton College presiding. The secretary's minutes of the 1984 annual meeting were adopted as printed in the Sum- mer, 1984, bulletin. The treasurer, Mary Anderson, submitted the following financial report for the year 1984-5 and the budget for 1985-6: Income 1984-5 1985-6 Membership $12,630 Admissions 3,919 Shops & sales 19,216 Interest, &c . 2,485 Donations 7,963 $14,500 4,500 21,000 3,000 8,000 Programs $507 $46,720 $500 $51,000 Expenses Wages &c $25,389 Occupancy 3,818 Overhead 7,982 Publications 10,896 Travel 796 An. Meeting 115 Archives $27,000 4,500 6,000 10,500 1,000 1,000 1,000 $51,000 $48,996 Thus for the second year in a row the so- ciety operated at a loss of approximately $2,000. The treasurer's report was ac- cepted . The nominating committee (Ray Angelo, Parker tluber, Edmund Schfield, and Linda Beaulieu — chairman) submitted the follow- ing report: For president, Frederick Wag- ner; president-elect, Michael Meyer; chair- man of the executive committee, John clymer; program chairman, Marian Wheeler; Treasurer, Mary Anderson; secretary, Walter Harding; nominating committee: Esther Almgren, Parker Huber, and Edmund Schfield — all for terms of one year; and members of the board of di- rectors for three years: Esther Almgren and Raymond Borst. The report was accepted and the slate duly elected. A motion to raise the life membership, ef fective immediately, to $500 was unanimous- ly adopted. A report of the Lyceum was given by the curator Anne McGrath (see below). Kevin Van Anglen, reporting for the Tho- reau Edition, said that the volume of Tho- reau's Translations will be published in the Spring of 1986, as will a paperback ed- ition of A Week . Joel Myerson and Michael Meyer reported that our society will sponsor two sessions at the Modern Language Association conven- tion in Chicago in December, one on the teaching of Walden and one on the Trans- cendentalists and Self-culture. Patience Hosmer MacPherson read memorial tributes to ;^eqinald Lansing cook, Henry Beetle Hough, and Robert Francis Needham; and Jack Schwartzman to Leonard Kleinfeld. For further details of the meeting see the announcement in the spring bulletin. We are indebted to the following for assis- tance in making the meeting the success it was — the largest meeting in some years: Mary and William Anderson, Esther Almgren, Sue Altschuler, Margaret Brace. Sharon Crawford, Malcolm Ferguson, Priscilla Ferguson, Persis Green, Barbara and Linda Henning, Sylvia Klinck, Laurie Lundeen, Susan Minor, Eliza- beth Morris, Anne McGrath, Brad Parker, Mary Walker, Marian Wheeler, Russell Wheeler, and Larry Whipple. REPORT OF THE THOREAU LYCEUM by Anne McGrath When the Thoreau Foundation was formed in 1966 it was because the founders thought that there should be a Thoreau Center in the town where the Concord author was born, lived, wrote, and died. As time passed, it became apparent that what visitors were looking for was information, not only about the man, but about his life, his family, his friends and his works. Gradually a re- search library and a book shop were added to the Lyce'um and before long, schools and colleges were making appointments to brinq classes here not just for an outing but to learn. The Lyceum has become a true "gathering of scholars." Among the annual offerings are, first, a Thoreau course for all the second grades in the public schools of concord--approxima te- ly 160 children. This is a structured course originally planned in cooperation with the Resource center of the concord School system. It begins with an intro- duction of Henry Thoreau by the Curator to the children at the Lyceum, continues in the fields and woods of i oncord with our staff naturalist. Finally in the classrooms the teachers carry on with units on jour- nal keeping, surveying, pencil making--all Thoreauvian activities which help to delin- eate the man as someone worth knowing. Each summer for the past nineteen years Walter Harding has led a graduate seminar in oncord and for the most recent years it has met at the Lyceum. Our library, small though it is, serves, I think, as an adjunct to the concord Free Public Library and now contains a fine collection of graduate the- ses and the Bernstein collection of literary scrapbooks. Dr. Harding's course has served over :30Q - teachers in colleges and high schools . For the general public the Lyceum offers a lecture series in both the spring and the fall, six evenings in all. These talks are given by writers, teachers, and scholars, frequently from faraway colleges and univer- sities who speak at the Lyceum without pay because this is the only Thoreau Center of its kind in the world. The naturalists of the area are not for- gotten, because the spring and fall series of walks to Thoreau' s favorite haunts have become a tradition largely because of their leader, Mary Mcciintock. In addition to the above activities, the Lyceum staff is busy throughout the year doing research, tracking down quotations for periodicals, sending information to in- quirers, mailing booklists. During the past 10 months the Curator and the Director of Orchard House (home of the Alcotts) have joined forces to lead a seminar on '"oncord Authors for teachers from independent schools all over the country, to originate and pre- sent a two-part introduction on the same subject for junior English classes at Con- cord-Carlisle High School, to prepare and carry out a pilot program on the anti- slavery movement in concord for three 8th grades and next week will participate as leaders in a Concord Teacher Institute in preparation for an in-depth study of Concord history connected with Concord's 350th An- niversary in September. We belong to a committee of heads of houses of the various literary and historic places in ''oncord and cooperate in various projects including Open House Programs for oncord citizens and an on-goinq search for a solution of where to have a proper visi- tor center in Goncord . The current exhibit at the Lyceum is on Cape r 'od as Thoreau saw it, shown in beau- tiful photographs by Stephen L. Thomas in contrast with the black and white pictures of Herbert W. Gleason, plus books from the '"ape r od collection of Kenneth Harber. We invite you all to see it. IN MEMORIUM . . . HENRY BEETLE HOUGH . . . As a past president of the Thoreau Socie- ty, we were fortunate to benefit from his shy, but humorous poetic expression and encyclopedic information ranging from the local gentry to the blades of grass on the dunes on the island of Martha's Vineyard where he owned and published the VINEYARD GAZETTE for over 65 years. In 1918 with a fellow student he wrote a paper that won a special Pulitzer Prize. He served in the Naval Reserve for a spell, only to return to his beloved island. His knowledge of plants and birdlife was voluminous. At 44 years of age his first book was published, beginning a second career. He was prolific as a writer of novels, history, children's books, nature books and biographies, includ- ing a popular one on Thoreau. His generosity in giving a hundred acres to a preserve that will forever be free of incursions, and his written words remaining, leave us the richer. — Patience Hosmer MacPherson REGINALD LANSING COOK . . . Reginald L. cook was another of the Tho- reau Society's distinguished presidents. He was professor emeritus of American litera- ture at Middlebury rollege, a forty-year as- sociation. A close friend and neighbor of Robert Frost, he wrote two books on the poet as well as two on Thoreau — THE CONCORD SAUNT- ERER and PASSAGE TO WALDEN. Not only was he a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, bat served later on the Rhodes Scholarship "ommittee for New England. Through his teaching and lectures, the respect and loyal- ty of his pupils made him a popular profes- sor, with potential writers making their mark, One of his students here today told me he never repeated the same lecture, reading each book anew before his review of his lec- ture . As a much younger woman, sitting silently in a corner of my livingroom, I listened in awe to a scientist, a naturalist, and he the scholar predicting the long range future of the hemisphere — a never forgotten ex- perience. Many of their predictions have become too real. Such is the truth of learn- rf mrn. --Pa tience Hosmer MacPherson. ROBERT FRANCIS NEEDHAM . . . Robert Francis Needham, a resident of roncord for thirty-five years, was a life member and for some years the vice-president of the Thoreau Society. Chairman and/or president of many historical societies throughout the state, as well as a member and office holder in the town of Concord's several historical societies, he served the community in every capacity on vari- ous committees. He also wrote at least two history books. •\ deacon of this First Parish r 'hurch, he served as treasurer and collector for many years. His dry wit, multiple contri- butions, and selfless interests throughout his lifetime made an impressionable friend forever. — Patience Hosmer MacPherson. LEONARD F. KLEINFELD I am here to speak of Leonard F. Klein- feld, a one-time president of the Thoreau Society. He was born on the East Side of New York City in 1899. He died in the Bor- ough of Queens on April 15, 1985. Between those two dates, he lived a full and rich life as a world traveler, a cosmic thinker, a poetic writer, and as a wonderful human being. For forty years, he was my dear friend, my philosophic colleague, my worthy co-edi- tor, my esteemed fellow-Thoreauvian. Un- fortunately, I did not see much of him to- ward the end of his life. Three weeks be- fore he died, I visited him in the hospital. It was a short but moving visit. It brought back nostalgic memories of a man who was truly a unique individual. As he himself termed it, he lived "in the shadow of Tho- reau," but, as I term it, he lived in the sunlight of wisdom. He was a self-schooled, hard-working man who managed to become a successful export- import dealer. I use the term "successful" as Leonard would use it: as an adjective signifying inward satisfaction. Leonard's occupation gave him the opportunity to travel to every nook and cranny of the earth and to mingle with all kinds of people, who loved him and became his life-lone friends. His basic belief was in the harmony of Nature and the divinity of Man. More than twenty years ago, in an article in FRAGMENTS he declared : "I never heard... in Nature any notes that were not harmonious, melodious, or tuneful.. "On a trip to Bear Mountain... I wanted to see the surroundings from the viewpoint of the waterfall. The gurgling, pulsating sheet of water falling into a pond below reflected the entire spectrum of rainbow colors in much the same way as does Niagara. "I remember reaching the summit of a Maine mountain, and spending the night aloft. In the distance, the sounds of bullfrogs, the cawing of crows, the shrilling of red-tailed hawks, just before the evening tide engulfed me, made me decide that melody was akind to silence — a help to abstraction. "On a lake in Columbia, in South America... I saw the arching fish play beyond the reach of hooks. "In the wilds of Surinam, ... the countless parrots screeched, the water lilies pre- sented a sight of beauty impossible to de- scrobe. . . "On one of the islands of the Netherlands Antilles, I watched a flotsam of fishing boats and ocean streamers. . .The feeling of ecstasy was sweeter than sugar to the mental palate. . . "On the crest of Monserrat in Bogota,... I watched the streets of the world below, feel- ing like a Heavenly Peeping Tom. . . "And then there were times when I had to walk alone, for fear that companions would talk of topics mundane." Leonard Kleinfeld was eighteen when he first read WALDEN. It became his "bedside bible." "I learned," he said, "that under- standing comes through education, not fear; that one of man's noblest assets is his in- tegrity. Thus, I never lived a life of quiet desperation. " His introduction to Thoreau turned Leonard away from a budding stage career. A 1919 vis it to Walden Pond made him a Thoreauvian for life. My friendship with Leonard continued for four decades. One incident sheds light upon our friendship. I managed, by an exciting stroke of luck, to find the famed Ricketson bas-relief of Thoreau in a bookstore on LonS Island. I was prepared to purchase this piece when Leonard asked me if I would mind relinquishing my "claim" and let him make the purchase instead. I agreed, and Leonard bought this precious work of art. As if that were not enough, he asked me to appear as his "ambassador" and present the bas-re- lief as a gift to the Thoreau Lyceum. Again I agreed. I made the formal presentation — and the masterpiece now proudly resides in its permanent home in the Thoreau Lyceum. What greater proof of friendship can a man show than to give up a Ricketson for a Kleinfeld? A great joy for Leonard, as he so often mentioned, was the launching of FRAGMENTS magazine. However, that feeling of exulta- tion was exceeded by what he called again "the greatest thrill" of his life, his elec- tion to the presidency of the Thoreau Socie- ty. "I shall never," he vowed, "forget the feeling." It was the proudest moment of his life. I was present when he delivered his presidential address — and I can still see the tears in his eyes when he finished his talk. ADDITIONS TO THE THOREAU BIBLIOGRAPHY. . ,WH Bajakian, Kyle. "At Walden Pond Activist Vows to Continue to Push to Ban Swimming." CONCORD JOURNAL. July 4, 1985. On Mary Sherwood . "Walden Pond Bank Restoration Slated in Fall." CONCORD JOURNAL. July 11, 1985. Rosalie M. Baum. "Thoreau* s Concept of the Wild." CONCORD SAUNTERER [CS], 17 (Dec. 1984), 39-44. Black, David. "Walking the Cape." HARPER'S, 270 (June, 1985), 49-54. In Thoreau 's footsteps . Blanding, Thomas. "Beans, Baked and Half- Baked 14," CS, 17 (Dec. 1984), 44-50. . "The Concord Saunterer: An Index." CS, 18 (April, 1985), 1-50. . "Edmund Quincy Sewall, Jr., Henry Thoreau's 'Pure Uncompromising Spirit,'" CS, 17 (Dec. 1984), 1-3. "Thoreau's Local Lectures in 1849 and 1850." CS, 17 (Dec. 1984), 21-26. Bonner, Willard H. HARP ON THE SHORE: THO- REAU & THE SEA. Completed and Edited by George R. Levine. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985. 129pp. $9.95, paper; $29.50, cloth. The late Willard Bonner loved both the sea and Thoreau. This volume has been completed posthumous- ly by his friend George Levine. Although this is a thoroughly researched book, the sea was usually only poriferal to Thoreau's major interests. As he himself once said, he got' little salted by the sea. In fact so little was he acquainted with it that he was a grown man before he realized that seals were common along the Massachusetts coast. He never took anything greater than short coastal trips by boat, never longer than overnight, never more than briefly out of sight of land, and got death- ly seasick nearly every time he got into a boat. By going through all of Thoreau's works with a fine-toothed comb, Mr. Bonner was able to accumulate an amazing number of references to the sea, but they are only a tiny fraction of Thoreau's writing and rarely really central to it. It is a strik- ing example of riding a scholarly hobby horse but tells us comparatively little about Thoreau. The Same. Review. SUNY RESEARCH. May, 1985. BOSTON GLOBE. "On Walden Pond." March 23, 1985. Brown, Stuart C. "Henry David Thoreau Wrote Words to Live by." DAILY MAIL (Williams- port ?, Pa.) July 11, 1985. Botsford, Audrey. "Thoreau Delight: Artist Tony Foster Celebrates Thoreau's Woods in Watercolor." APPALACHIA, 51 (July, 1985), 3, 6. Bush, Sargent Jr. "The Ends and Means in WALDEN: Thoreau's Use of the Catechism." ESQ, 31 (1985), 1-10. Coakley, Michael. "Tourists Make Waves at Walden Pond." CHICAGO TRIBUNE. April 21, 1985. Dodson, James. "The Man Who Found Thoreau." YANKEE, 49 (May, 1985), 62-65, 116-123. On Roland Robbins. Dean, Bradley. "Thoreau and Michael Flan- nery, " CS, 17 (Dec. 1984), 27-33. Duban, James. "Thoreau, Garrison and Dy- mond." AMER. LIT., 57 (May, 1985), 309- 317. Influences on "Civil Disobedience." Egan, Kenneth V. Jr., "Thoreau's Pastoral Vision in 'Walking.'" ATQ, 57 (July, 1985) 21-30. ECONOMIST. "Walden Revisited." March 30, 1985. Parody of WALDEN. Emerson, Edward Waldo. HENRY THOREAU AS REMEMBERED BY A YOUNG FRIEND. Review. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. July 18, 1968. Farce, Giles. "Different Drummers: Thomas Merton and Henry Thoreau." MERTON FESTIVAL OF BELLARMINE COLLEGE, 10 (Spring, 1985), 2-6. Ferguson, Malcolm. "Joyce Carol Oates Ad- dresses 44th Annual Thoreau Society Meet- ing." CONCORD JOURNAL. July 18, 1985. Fisher, Susan. "State Will Repair Banks of Walden." CONCORD JOURNAL. June 6, 1985. Experimenting with stone enbank- ments for the pond. Fleck, Richard. "The Evil of Nature or .thfi^Nafcure of Evil in Thoreau's MAINE WOODS', * AMER. NOTES & QUERIES, 23 (Jan. 1985), 77-78 Foster, Tony. THOREAU'S COUNTRY: A VISUAL DIARY. New Haven: Yale Center for Brit- ish Art, 1985. 4pp. Catalog of exhibit. 8 . Review. NEW YORK TIMES. May 19, 1985. Gollin, Rita K. & James B. Scholes. THO- REAU AMONG OTHERS: ESSAYS IN HONOR OF WALTER HARDING. Geneseo : State University College, 1983. 125pp. Essays by various authors on Thoreau's relations with his con- temporaries, delivered at a 1982 conference. Grove, Lloyd. "At Walden Breezes, Waiting for Thoreau." WASHINGTON POST. July 9, 1985. Residents of Walden trailer park take out their frustrations on Thoreau. Heberlein, Larry. "Thoreau at a Party," SOUTH DAKOTA REVIEW, 22 (Winter, 1984), 61-62. A poem. Hoag, Ronald Wesley. "A 'Life without Principle' Manuscript Fragment: What to Make of a Diminished Thing?" ESSAYS IN LITERATURE, 12 (Spring, 1985), 139-144. Holahan, David. "What Would Thoreau Think Now?" BOSTON GLOBE. July 4, 1985. Also syndicated elsewhere. Holden, Stephen. "Music: 'Walden,' by Choset." NEW YORK TIMES. June 3, 1985. Review of a new oratorio based on WALDEN. Hornblower, Margot. "A Growing Tide of Tourists Roils WALB§n Pond." WASHINGTON POST. March 20, 1985. Johnson, Li nek. "More on Thoreau's A WEEK ON THE CONCORD AND MERRIMACK RIVERS and Margaret Fuller's 'Good Week.'" CS, 17 (Dec. 1984), 17-20. Kostoff, Leslie. NOTES ON WALDEN. Toronto: Forum House, 1968. 98pp. A "trot." Lebeaux, Richard. THOREAU'S SEASONS. Re- views: AMER. LIT., May, 1985; TIMES LIT- ERARY SUPPLEMENT, June 14, 1985. Loring, Susan F. "Reminiscences of Concord" CS, 17 (Dec. 1984), 12-17. Lutyens, Elizabeth. CONCORD UNFOLDED. Concord: Welch Foods, 1985. Folder guide to Concord with segment on Thoreau. McKenzie, Leisa. "Students Plan Walden Pond Development." OSU ON CAMPUS. March 14, 1985. Ohio State University landscape architecture students draw up proposals for Walden Pond State Reservation. McLachlin, Mary. "Beer C^ns, Radios & Wal- den Pond." DAYTONA BEACH NEWS JOURNAL. March 24, 1985. Meltzer, Milton. AIN'T GONNA STUDY WAR NO MORE. New York: Harper & Row, 1985. 282 pp. $12.50. A history for young people of the peace movement in the United States over the centuries, with many references to Thoreau's influence. We found it a fascin- ating book. Middleton, Tom. "140 Years Later at Walden Pond There's a New House for Henry." CON- CORD JOURNAL. July 18, 1985. A new repli- ca of the cabin was dedicated at the pond parking lot on Thoreau's birthday. Montgomery, M.R. "Showdown at Walden." BOS- TON GLOBE. March 25, 1985. Myerson, Joel. "John Albee and Thoreau." rs, 17 (Dec. 1984), 33-38. NEW YORK TIMES. "Dispute at Walden." Mar. 21, 1985. OHIO STATE UNIV. ALUMNI MAG. "On Walden Pond." May, 1985. pp. 20ff. New landscape plans for the pond. Pillai, A.K.B. TRANSCENDENTAL SELF: A COMP- ARATIVE STUDY OF THOREAU AND THE PSYCHO- PHILOSOPHY OF HINDUISM AND BUDDHISM. Lan- ham, Md.: Univ. Press of America, 1985. 116pp. $9, paper; $19.50, cloth. Origi- nally written as a M.A. thesis at East Carolina University, this book, as the author says, is "essentially. . .a work of comparative literature," comparing WALPEN with Indian scriptures. WALDEN, is he says, "the closest to the Yogic sys- tem of all major American writings." One should note, however, that this does not prove that Thoreau derived his ideas from the Orient, for he, Thoreau, tells us that he found confirmation of his own ideas when he discovered the Oriental scriptures. Although much has been written on Thoreau and the Orient, Mr. Pillai manages to escape much of the misty-ness that so many others have fallen into. His writing is clear, precise and to the point. Robinson, Lynda. "Pennsbury's David Barto Winning Raves of Students by Impersonat- ing Thoreau." BUCKS COUNTY [Pa.] COURIER TIMES. March 11, 1985. Ryan, George. "A Patron Saint for Walden Pond." BOSTON PILOT. Ap. 5, 1985. Pro- poses St. 3k. Thomas of Walden, a 15th cen- tury British saint. Sandler, Benjamin. "Thoreau, Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Dietary Deficiency."" CHEST, 63 (May, 1973), 855-856. Suggests Thoreau caused his own death by improper diet. Smith Harmon. "Henry Thoreau and Emerson's •Noble Youths." CS, 17 (Dec. 1984), 4- 12. Giles Waldo and William Tappan. Smith, Lorriw. "'Walking* from England to America: Re-Viewing Thoreau's Romanticism" NEW ENGLAND QUART., 58 (June, 1985), 221-41 Sullivan, rheryl. "Thoreau Swam in Walden Pond: But Purists Want Others Barred. CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. March 21,1985. Swanson, Doug. "Walden Purists Fight to Restore Solitude." CHARLOTTE OBSERVER. May 26, 1985. Thomas, Stephen L. "After Thoreau," CAPE COD COMPASS, 32 (1985), 66-74. Thoreau, H.D. JOURNAL. Peregrine Smith edition. Review. LOS ANGELES TIMES. Feb. 24, 1985; SIERRA, March, 1985. JOURNAL II. Princeton edition. Re- view. TIMES LITERARY SUPPLEMENT. June 14, 1985. "Milton's L'Allegro and II Pensero- so." MOUNT TOM, I (Dec. 1905), 233-240. Torsney, Cheryl. "Learning the Language of the Railroad in WALDEN." ATQ, 55 (Jan. 1985), 19-28. Urbanski, Marie Olesen. "Thoreau in the Writing of Louisa May Alcott" in Made- leine B. Stern, CRITICAL ESSAYS ON LOUISA MAY ALCOTT. Boston: Hall, 1984. pp. 269- 274. Vickery, Martha. "A Visit with 'the Pick & Shovel Historian." PRESERVATION NEWS. June, 1985. pp.5, 17. Roland Robbins. Walden Forever Wild. THE WALDEN LOON: A NATIVE DEPARTED. Concord, . Un- paged. Yardley, Jonathan. "Ten Books That Shaped the American Character." AMERICAN HERITAGE April, 1985. pp. 24-31. WALDEN is No. 1.